Big weekend news were EA releasing some of their codebase source, including parts of EASTL. Given that the original EASTL document has been the main inspiration for my RDE STL experiment, I was very interested in finally seeing the code itself. First impression – it’s still big. It is leaner than STL, but it is a big library. That’s quite understandable if you remember it’s not a local, one studio thing, it’s used by the whole organization. Thus, it includes features like optional exception support, that in other situation could be easily ignored. I was especially curious to test how their hash map implementation performed when compared to Google’s or RDESTL.
hash_map tests were done using Google’s sparsehash (v1.9), ran them on my old laptop (Core Duo 2.2GHz, first value) and desktop machine (8 core, email@example.comGHz, second value). All benchmarks were run for three different types of objects – sizes of 4 bytes (5000000 iterations), 16 bytes (1250000 iterations) and 256 bytes (156250 iterations). Results presented in tables below (omitted sparse_hash_map (slowest by far) and std::map. See my previous post for test description):
|4 byte objects||dense_hash_map||rde::hash_map||stdext::hash_map||eastl::hash_map|
|map_grow||1273.8/365.9 ns||699.0/205.9 ns||2095.8/535.7 ns||1815.9/402.3 ns|
|map_predict/grow||535.6/169.4 ns||461.5/151.3 ns||2209.3/544.2 ns||1833.8/421.3 ns|
|map_replace||351.9/128. ns||369.9/116.9 ns||540.2/167.0 ns||395.6/121.9 ns|
|map_replace2||377.0/130.4 ns||322.3/94.2 ns||513.5/158.3 ns||354.1/118.8 ns|
|map_fetch||370.9/125.8 ns||309.3/98.4 ns||514.3/155.0 ns||412.9/103.7 ns|
|map_fetch_empty||101.1/28.2 ns||35.5/8.4 ns||224.6/54.9 ns||191.3/42.8 ns|
|map_remove||495.2/158.8 ns||370.4/121.4 ns||2131.5/577.2 ns||587.9/163.2 ns|
|map_toggle||1050.9/238.9 ns||479.5/121.6 ns||3470.2/844.6 ns||1193.9/264.5 ns|
|16 byte objects||dense_hash_map||rde::hash_map||stdext::hash_map||eastl::hash_map|
|map_grow||2760.6/685.5 ns||1235.3/282.7 ns||1964.5/1016.3 ns||2057.8/522.9 ns|
|map_predict/grow||934.5/258.5 ns||715.4/210.7 ns||1802.9/1026.8 ns||2044.4/528.7 ns|
|map_replace||693.0/199.8 ns||569.9/172.0 ns||774.8/178.5 ns||651.9/214.8 ns|
|map_replace2||826.6/204.4 ns||549.5/168.9 ns||783.1/176.4 ns||628.4/204.2 ns|
|map_fetch||712.9/203.6 ns||537.5/159.0 ns||765.9/177.1 ns||627.4/200.2 ns|
|map_fetch_empty||152.3/40.5 ns||87.7/23.7 ns||169.5/91.6 ns||369.7/78.8 ns|
|map_remove||931.8/252.9 ns||588.1/164.0 ns||1708.3/1481.7 ns||823.1/221.4 ns|
|map_toggle||2220.7/509.0 ns||903.3/215.5 ns||1414.6/896.6 ns||1785.7/371.3 ns|
|256 byte objects||dense_hash_map||rde::hash_map||stdext::hash_map||eastl::hash_map|
|map_grow||16839.8/3724.5 ns||5786.5/1360.1 ns||12130.4/3012.7 ns||7629.7/1831.8 ns|
|map_predict/grow||4675.8/1174.3 ns||3845.0/934.9 ns||12281.7/2969.9 ns||7411.1/1852.1 ns|
|map_replace||3893.9/999.0 ns||3334.1/800.1 ns||3307.8/789.5 ns||3239.0/763.0 ns|
|map_replace2||4039.3/1018.4 ns||3298.5/807.4 ns||3222.9/815.0 ns||3234.3/838.3 ns|
|map_fetch||3941.6/978.8 ns||3186.0/820.3 ns||3173.7/797.6 ns||3188.8/819.7 ns|
|map_fetch_empty||233.6/66.3 ns||158.3/46.1 ns||3057.8/749.3 ns||2954.8/720.3 ns|
|map_remove||4457.8/1116.7 ns||3301.5/785.4 ns||9395.7/2347.9 ns||3408.8/928.7 ns|
|map_toggle||9773.2/2334.4 ns||6438.6/1525.4 ns||13127.5/2931.8 ns||9738.0/2437.8 ns|
Note: couldn’t find reserve/resize method for EASTL, that’s why map_grow is the same as map_predict/grow. RDE tries to be as cache friendly as possible and uses open addressing, so it’s the most effective with small objects. When iterating to next object means a cache miss anyway, most of its advantages is lost, as is clearly visible for 256 byte items. Actually, for the last group, std::map was the fastest, beating all hash_maps easily. Below you can find comparative charts (results from the 8-core machine), last one includes std::map.
I ran also my own test, which included adding names of all files from c:\Windows\System32 to a (hash)map, performing some look-ups and then removing them. In general EASTL was quite close to RDESTL here (excluding construction), both quite clearly faster than standard implementation. std::map, rde::map & eastl::map were included in the test as well, and while they were slower than hash_maps, EASTL was clearly the fastest from those three (with RDE ‘fetch’ being the slowest, slower than MSVC implementation even, will have to take a look there). Typical results (in ms, laptop):
I tried some less interesting containers, like vector as well. EASTL implementation is really nice, it’s a little bit faster than RDE in most important areas (push_back), while slightly slower when removing objects. There are some neat ideas there, like storing capacity same way as begin/end (ie. as vector), so that we don’t need to ‘convert’ between pointer/index when testing if vector should grow. I plan to incorporate some of those into RDE soon (it could use some overhaul/clean-up anyway).
In general, switching to EASTL should be a no brainer for any companies that are still using STL, if only for better memory management. If you have your own implementation, you probably want to run similar benchmarks yourself first, but I’d say it’s worth at least giving a try (not the whole package maybe, as I mentioned – it may be a little too big for everyone’s taste) . It’s clearly visible that it was written by someone, who actually cared about performance/memory management.
Appendix: all charts in this note were generated using Perl. I wrote a little script that parsed program output and generated images using built-in module. It was the first time I wrote something in Perl. Impressions? Boy, is it powerful when it comes to working with strings (shocker, I know). Whole parsing code is maybe 15 lines and I’m sure could be half of it, were it written by someone who actually knew what he was doing. Syntax is ugly, yes… It’s good to be concise, but here it was pushed a little bit too far. I think I still prefer it to Tcl. Thing I absolutely hated was that statements need to end with a semicolon. For some reason when I code in a scripting language I immediately switch to sloppy, non semicolon mode. What’s more annoying – error messages are completely bogus in such case, I think I’ve seen at least 10 different ones. After a while I just learnt that if message didn’t make any sense – it’s a semicolon missing somewhere.